When taken literally, "you can do anything that you set your mind to" means that you can defy the laws of this reality as long as you really really want to do it
(reminds me of Hiro from Heroes)
Of course, what it really means is that you must never give up, work as hard as you can, and be better than others in order to accomplish your goals that are within the realm of possibility. In order for this philosophy to work in the business industry, you must rise above others in the corporate ladder and make their goals unobtainable. The only way for this philosophy to work in the corporate world for everyone, it would have to happen in a communist government.
Physics was never taught centuries ago anyways, so it has never been majorly revamped.
Isaac Newton was born around the 1600s, so if I can do the math right, that's more than a century ago