Anything with mass traveling the speed of light would have enough energy to vaporize our entire solar system practically instantly simply by touching it
For the matter of that, anything with rest mass (and black holes do) cannot travel at the speed of light at all.
The fact that its a black hole and not an intergalactic shoe flying at us means almost nothing.
On the contrary, it means a lot. A shoe flying at relativistic speeds does damage by having its mass collide with the mass of something which is stopped or moving fairly slowly (such as the Earth), and convert an extremely high energy concentration in a small amount of matter into a relatively low energy concentration in a large amount of matter. However, a black hole with the same mass as the shoe would have difficulty with the colliding part; it would just pass through the Earth, and while it would cause a small (probably microscopic) explosion due to a small amount of matter getting sucked close to it and heated up, it would be nowhere near the kind of destruction caused by a shoe moving at the same speed.
You're saying this, knowing that a black hole sucks in even light? How can that be true, if even relatively small black holes have enough gravitation to pull us in?
You're committing the all too common 'black holes literally suck' fallacy. The gravity coming from a black hole is no different from the gravity coming from any other object, the thing with the black hole is that the place it's coming from is extremely small. A black hole with the same mass as our Sun would indeed be able to suck in light, but only light that was passing very close around it (within approximately 2.95343236 kilometers, assuming the black hole is infinitely small). And if this black hole replaced the Sun, the gravitational effect on the Earth would be very small, and the Earth would go on orbiting at its normal distance.
Why? Well, gravity diminishes by the square of the distance. That is to say, if there is, for example, a watermelon one meter away from you and another watermelon three meters away from you, the more distant watermelon will be exerting not the same gravity, not one third the gravity, but one ninth the gravity as the close watermelon (because three squared is nine). Similarly, while we say that the entire Earth is pulling on us to keep us down, the dirt that is right under our feet is exerting far more gravity per kilogram of dirt than the dirt at the other side of the Earth. The distance to the other side of the Earth is 12756.3 kilometers, or 12756300 meters, and that squared is 162723189690000, so a kilogram of dirt one meter beneath your feet is exerting one hundred and sixty trillion times
as much gravity on your feet as one kilogram of dirt on the other side of the Earth.
With something as large as the Earth, the total gravity acting on you even if you, say, jump in the air, or take an elevator up to the top floor of a building, doesn't change very much, because the distance to most of the dirt that is pulling on you hasn't changed by a very large factor. However, black holes are extremely small compared to their mass. So if instead of the Earth underneath your feet there was a black hole one meter beneath your feet with enough mass to provide the same amount of gravity as the Earth, then just by jumping one more meter away from it, you would experience one quarter the gravity. This is because the mass causing the gravity is very concentrated, making it relatively easy to increase your average distance from it.
So, we have the Sun, and a black hole with the same mass as the Sun. We're assuming the black hole has a diameter of, say, 1 meter over which its mass is evenly distributed (a true black hole is infinitely small, but true black holes cannot exist before infinity time has passed, and 1 meter is close enough for our purposes) and the Sun has a diameter of 1392000 kilometers over which its mass is evenly distributed. If we go to the center of either object, then the average distance to the Sun's mass is 492146.32 kilometers and the average distance to the black hole's mass is about 0.35 meters (35 centimeters). This means that, despite their masses being the same,
the black hole exerts something like 1977208160000 times as much gravitational force (my calculations may be off somewhere but at any rate the factor is very large). However, now we move out to the Earth's orbital radius. Because the Sun is so far away, the distance between its close area and its far area is almost negligible, so the result is that the Sun's mass and the black hole's mass are about the same distance away. And same distance * same mass = same gravity. The Earth is not being subjected to almost any more gravity at that distance from the black hole as it is from the Sun.
I may not have explained all this very well, but trust me, it works. Actually, it isn't necessary to trust me. Ask any physicist and they'll tell you the same thing.